### 5010. Independent Study

Variable (1-6) credits. Prerequisite: instructor consent. May be repeated with a change of topic up to three times for a total of nine credits. Students taking this course will be assigned a final grade of S (satisfactory) or U (unsatisfactory).

A special reading course.

### 5020. Research in Physics

Variable (1-6) credits. Prerequisite: instructor consent. May be repeated with a change of topic up to three times for a total of nine credits.

Experimental and theoretical research in selected topics in physics.

### 5050. Modern Physics for Teachers

Three credits.

New teaching materials and techniques as developed by the Physical Science Study Committee for secondary school teachers of physics.

### 5094. Physics Seminar

One credit. Prerequisite: instructor consent. Students taking this course will be assigned a final grade of S (satisfactory) or U (unsatisfactory).

The treatment of special topics, primarily by individual readings and reports.

### 5101. Methods of Theoretical Physics I

Three credits.

Vector and tensor analysis, curvilinear coordinates, linear algebra, functions of complex variables, differential equations, special functions, elements of Green’s functions.

### 5102. Methods of Theoretical Physics II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5101.

Abstract vector spaces, Hilbert space, group theory. Fourier series and integral representations, Theory of Green’s functions and integral equations. Complex function theory.

### 5105. Methods of Experimental Physics

Variable (1-6) credits. Experimental methods used in modern research are applied to experiments from various fields of physics, including: low temperature conductivity of metals, x-ray diffraction, acoustic attenuation, optical constants of metals, color centers in alkali halides, nuclear beta decay, Zeeman effects and others.

### 5201. Theoretical Mechanics I

Three credits.

Classical mechanics: Lagrange equations, central force motion, rigid body motions, small oscillations, Hamilton equations, canonical transformation.

### 5202. Theoretical Mechanics II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5201.

Dynamics of continuous media, hydromechanics, elasticity, wave motion, wave interactions and scattering, non-linear processes.

### 5301. Electrodynamics I

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5101.

Differential formulations of electrostatics and magnetostatics, electromagnetic induction. Maxwell equations, electromagnetic waves, application to wave guides, cavities, and dispersive media. Foundations of special relativity.

### 5302. Electrodynamics II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5201 and 5301.

Maxwell’s equations with time dependent sources; adiation from relativistic charged particles; dynamical laws for charged particles; diffraction of electromagnetic waves.

### 5350. Computerized Modeling in Science

Four credits. Instructor consent required.

Development and computer-assisted analysis of mathematical models in chemistry, physics, and engineering. Typical topics include chemical equilibrium, reaction rates, particle scattering, vibrating systems, least square analysis and quantum chemistry.

### 5401. Quantum Mechanics I

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5101 and 5201.

Mathematical formulation and interpretation of quantum mechanics. Illustrative examples. Hydrogen atom. Dirac ket and bra vectors, matrix methods. Scattering theory.

### 5402. Quantum Mechanics II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5401.

Symmetry and angular momentum. Approximation methods for stationary and time-dependent problems, with applications. Relativistic theory of the electron.

### 5403. Quantum Mechanics III

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5402.

Occupation number representation, electron gas, Hartree-Fock approximation, correlation energy, superconductivity, perturbation theory, Green’s functions, Feynman diagrams.

### 5500. Statistical Mechanics

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5401.

Ensembles, distribution function, partition function. Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, fluctuations, applications to the properties of solids and liquids and to the kinetic theory of gases.

### 5600. Modern Physics

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5401.

Experimental and theoretical milestones in the development of contemporary physics. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics including quantum optics; condensed matter physics; nuclear and particle physics; and cosmology and astrophysics.

### 5621. Advanced Topics in Physics I

Variable (1-6) credits. Prerequisite: instructor consent. May be repeated for credit.

Selected topics in theoretical and experimental physics.

### 5622. Advanced Topics in Physics II

Variable (1-3) credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5621 Instructor consent required. May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.

Selected topics in theoretical and experimental physics.

### 6110. Atomic Physics

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5402.

Coupling of angular momenta. Hartree-Fock theory of many electron atoms, fine structure and hyperfine structure. Introduction to group theory.

### 6120. Molecular Physics

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6110.

Heitler-London and molecular orbital theories for diatomic molecules, semi-empirical methods of poly-atomic molecules.

### 6130. Quantum Optics

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5401.

Semiclassical theory of light-matter interactions. Quantum states of light. Generation, detection and interactions of nonclassical radiation.

### 6140. Principles of Lasers

Three credits.

The physics of lasers, including optical pumping and stimulated emission, laser rate equations, optical resonators, non-linear optics, the Kerr effect and Faraday rotation. Applications to gas, crystal, glass, liquid, dye, semiconductor, chemical and ultraviolet lasers, Q-switching, mode-locking, and parametric devices.

### 6150. Semiconductor Optical Devices

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6201.

Semiconductor based optical devices such as lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors, and their application to optical fiber transmission systems.

### 6201. Fundamentals of Solid State Physics I

Three credits.

Crystal structure, phonons, electronic band structure, metals, insulators and semiconductors.

### 6202. Fundamentals of Solid State Physics II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6201.

Optical, magnetic and transport properties. Lattice defects. Non-crystalling solids.

### 6211. Condensed Matter Physics I

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5402.

Crystal structure; lattice vibrations; electronic band structure of solids; transport theory; basic properties of metals, semi-conductors and insulators; magnetism; super-conductivity.

### 6212. Condensed Matter Physics II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6211.

Crystal structure; lattice vibrations; electronic band structure of solids; transport theory; basic properties of metals, semi-conductors and insulators; magnetism; super-conductivity.

### 6220. Advanced Solid State Physics

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6212 or 6342.

The many-body problem in solid state physics. The electron gas, normal metals, electron-phonon interactions, superconductivity, ferro- and antiferro-magnetism and spin waves, polaron theory.

### 6234. Non-Equilibrium Properties of Solids

Three credits.

Electrical and thermal conduction, thermoelectricity. Electrons and phonons. Perturbation techniques to estimate interaction rates; electron-phonon, phonon-phonon and imperfection scattering processes. Ultrasonic generation and attenuation, spin-lattice interactions.

### 6236. Microwave Physics I

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5301.

The principles of microwave and radio frequency techniques applied to investigation of the properties of matter.

### 6244. The Electrical Properties of Polymers

Three credits.

Experimental and theoretical aspects of electrical phenomena in polymers: DC and AC conductivity, dielectric constant, electrical breakdown, photoconductivity, etc. Extended and localized electron wave functions; band and hopping conduction.

### 6246. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance I

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5401.

Basic theory and experimental methods of NMR with emphasis on resonance and relaxation in metals. Brief discussion of interpretation of NMR in non-metallic solids, liquids, and gases.

### 6247. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6246.

Basic theory and experimental methods of NMR with emphasis on resonance and relaxation in metals. Brief discussion of interpretation of NMR in non-metallic solids, liquids, and gases.

### 6254. Low Temperature Physics I

Three credits. Prerequisite: instructor consent.

Lectures and seminars on selected topics in low temperature physics; superfluidity and super-conductivity, solid state, nuclear alignment and polarization, transport properties in solids.

### 6256. X-Ray Physics I

Three credits.

Symmetry of crystals. Production and properties of x-rays. Application of x-rays in the study of crystalline and amorphous solids by diffraction and spectroscopic techniques, including synchrotron radiation for studying atomic and electronic structures in materials.

### 6264. Semiconductor Physics

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6201, and PHYS 5402, which may be taken concurrently

Semiconductors and semiconductor devices. Band structure, phonon scattering, velocity-field relations, effects of doping and magnetic fields, optical and transport properties.

### 6300. Astrophysics and Modern Cosmology

Three credits. Prerequisite: instructor consent.

Basic principles of contemporary astrophysics; pplications to stars, galaxies, and modern cosmology.

### 6310. Relativity

Three credits.

Special relativity, tensor analysis, foundations of general relativity, Petrov classification of curved spacetimes, Schwarzchild and Kerr solutions, experimental tests and recent developments.

### 6320. Nuclei and Particles

Three credits.

Properties of nuclei and particles, conserved quantities, isospin, quark model, Fermi gas model, electroweak interaction, high energy scattering.

### 6331. Nuclear Physics I

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5402.

A quantum mechanical treatment of nuclear forces and nuclear structure, including the shell and collective models, and of reaction and radiation phenomena. The second semester is reserved for a discussion of selected topics on an advanced level.

### 6332. Nuclear Physics II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6331.

A quantum mechanical treatment of nuclear forces and nuclear structure, including the shell and collective models, and of reaction and radiation phenomena. The second semester is reserved for a discussion of selected topics on an advanced level.

### 6341. Quantum Theory of Fields I

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 5403.

Local gauge invariance, Lagranian formulation, Noether currents, spontaneous breakdown of symmetry, Higgs mechanism and superconductivity, canonical quantization, Feynman diagrams, Green’s functions.

### 6342. Quantum Theory of Fields II

Three credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 6341.

Topics chosen from the following: Path integral formalism, generating functionals, renormalization, abelian and non-abelian gauge theories (QED and QCD), electroweak theory, solitons, instantons.